Engine & Fuel System Troubleshooting
Simple formula to determine cubic inches in your engine: Bore X Bore X Stroke X # of cylinders X .7854 = Your Cubic Inches

Engine difficult to start or will not start (exhaust smoke)
Engine will not start (no exhaust smoke)
Engine power LOW
Engine starts, runs, dies, may restart later

Engine runs rough at idle
Engine runs rough or misfires
Engine speed surges at low or high idle

Engine overheating
Excessive black smoke
Excessive white smoke Blue smoke
Engine oil coming out of exhaust

Fuel in crankcase

Coolant or steam in crankcase

Engine oil in coolant

Radiators: Keeping things cool
Water pump: Replacement considerations

Engine Kits: Proper ordering method
Engine Kits: Proper kit installation
Fuel economy: Improve fuel consumption

Engine difficult to start or will not start (exhaust smoke)
1 Starting procedure is incorrect
Verify proper starting procedures. Refer to the starting procedure in the owners Operation and Maintenance Manual.
2 Cranking speed too slow (minimum cranking speed 150 rpms)
Verify the driven units are not engaged. Check the battery, cables and starting motor and look for loose or corroded wiring connections. Bar the engine to check for internal rotational resistance.
3 Starting aid needed for cold weather or not working properly Check and repair or replace the cold starting aid, if necessary. Refer to the OEM trouble-shooting and repair manual for recommendations.
4 Intake air inadequate or overheated
Inspect/replace the air cleaner element and look for restrictions. * If the vehicle is equipped with a valve to switch the intake source from under the hood to outside, position the valve for the season. * Check the charge air cooler for internal restriction. Replace the restricted cooler. * Check and clean the debris from the front of the charge air cooler.
5 Air in the fuel system
Bleed the fuel system and check for suction leaks.
6 Fuel Supply Inadequate
Check the flow through the filter to locate the source of restriction.
7 Fuel quality poor or diesel fuel grade No. 1 used above 32 deg F Verify by operating the engine from a temporary tank of No. 2 diesel fuel.
8 Fuel drain back
Verify the fuel return line is plumbed to the bottom of the fuel tank if applicable.
9 Malfunctioning fuel return overflow valve
Check/replace the return overflow valve.
10 Fuel inlet restriction
Maximum inlet restriction to the fuel transfer pump must not exceed 100 mm Hg (4 in. Hg).
11 Fuel injection pump timing is incorrect Check and adjust the injection pump timing to engine manufacturer specs.
12 Valves incorrectly adjusted (valves are not sealing)
Check and adjust the valves.
13 Injectors worn or malfunctioning
Check the injectors and replace any malfunctioning injectors.
14 Engine COMPRESSION IS LOW
Perform the compression check to identify the malfunction.
15 Fuel injection pump malfunctioning/delivery valves malfunctioning
Remove the fuel injection pump and repair as necessary.

Engine will not start (no exhaust smoke)
1 Starting procedure is incorrect
Verify starting procedure. Refer to the starting procedure in the owners operation and maintenance manual.
2 Fuel level low or empty // fuel shut-off valve closed
Check and fill tank // open fuel shut off valve.
3 Air in the fuel system
Bleed the fuel system and check for suction leaks.
4 No/improper voltage to injection pump shut off solenoid Check/repair switches, wiring or linkage as necessary.
5 Fuel injection pump mechanical shut-off engaged
Repair/replace linkage as necessary.
6 Injection pump failure - PUMP NOT SEIZED -
Remove fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.
7 Injection pump failure - PUMP SEIZED -
Determine the cause of injection pump siezure and repair before installing a repaired/replacement injection pump.

Engine power LOW
1 Engine overloaded
Check for added loading from malfunctioning accessories or driven units, brakes dragging and other changes in vehicle loading.
2 Fuel control lever mis-adjusted
Check/correct for stop-to-stop travel.
3 Mechanical shutoff lever partially engaged Check/replace shutoff lever in run position.
4 Fuel quality poor of diesel fuel grade No. 1 used above 32 deg. F
Verify be operating the engine from a temporary tank of NO. 2 diesel fuel.
5 Slow Throttle response, Air fuel tube leaking, Wastegate Diaphram ruptured, Wastegate plumbing damaged Tighten the fittings, repair plumbing or repair wastegate diaphragm.
6 High pressure fuel leak
Inspect the high pressure lines, fittings, or delivery valve seals for leaks and repair if necessary.
7 Fuel supply inadequate
Check the flow through the filter to locate the source of the restriction.
8 Air in the fuel system Bleed the fuel system and check for suction leaks.
9 Fuel transfer pump malfunctioning
Check/replace the fuel transfer pump.
10 Malfunctioning fuel return overflow valve
Check/replace the return overflow valve.
11 Oil level incorrect Check the oil level and correct.
12 Intake air inadequate or overheated
Inspect/replace the air cleaner element and look for restrictions. * If the vehicle is equipped with a valve to switch the intake source from under the hood to outside, position the valve for the season. * Coolant passages plugged in the aftercooler.* Check the charge air cooler for internal restriction. Replace the restricted cooler. * Check and clean the debris from the front of the change oil cooler.
13 Air leak between the turbocharger and the intake manifold
Check for leaks in the air crossover tube, charge air cooler connections, hoses, or through holes in the manifold cover and repair or replace.
14 Exhaust restriction
Check for any exhaust restriction and repair.
15 Fuel temperature high (greater than 160 F)
Fill the fuel tank. Verify the fuel heater is off during warm weather. Check for a restricted fuel drain line.
16 Exhaust leak at the manifold of turbocharger
Check and correct any leaks in the exhaust manifold or turbocharger gaskets. Look for a cracked exhaust manifold.
17 Fuel injection pump timing is incorrect
Check and time the fuel injection pump.
18 Turbocharger worn or malfunctioning Check for the specified boost pressure. Refer to the turbocharger boost pressure specification. Inspect the turbocharger and replace it necessary.
19 Valves incorrectly adjusted (valves are not sealing)
Check and adjust the valves.
20 Extra injector sealing washer installed under injector. This is only applicable to recent overhaul with injectors replaced Remove the extra injector sealing washer.
21 Injectors worn or malfunctioning
Check the injectors and replace any malfunctioning injectors.
22 Engine compression is low
Perform the compression check to identify the malfunction. Correct as required.
23 Fuel injection pump is malfunctioning Remove the fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.

Engine starts, runs, dies, may restart later
1 Fuel level low or empty
Check/fill fuel tank.
2 Air in the fuel system Bleed the fuel system and check for suction leaks.
3 Fuel transfer pump malfunctioning
Check/replace fuel transfer pump.
4 Fuel supply restricted Clean/replace the pre filters and screens and check/repair line(s) for restrictions.
5 Fuel return line restricted
Clean obstruction from return line - check injection pump for source.
6 Injection pump shut-off malfunction Check/replace electric shut-off solenoid if equipped or check/repair mechanical linkage.
7 Injection pump malfunction -PUMP NOT SEIZED -
Remove the fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.
8 Injection pump malfunction -PUMP is SEIZED- Determine the cause of injection pump siezure and repair before installing a repaired/replacement injection pump.

Engine runs rough at idle
1 Engine is cold
Allow the engine to warm up to operating temperature. If engine will not reach operating temperature refer to manual.
2 Idle speed is set too low for accessories Check and adjust the low idle screw.
3 Engine mounts are over tightened, damaged, or loose
Verify the condition of the mounts. Refer to the equipment mfger's service instructions.
4 High pressure fuel leaks
Inspect the high pressure lines, fittings, or delivery valve seals and repair if necessary.
5 Air in the fuel System
Bleed the fuel system and check for suction leaks.
6 Malfunctioning fuel return overflow valve Check/replace the return overflow valve.
7 Fuel transfer pump malfunctioning Check/replace the fuel transfer pump.
8 Fuel supply restricted
Clean the pre-filters and screens and check the fuel line for restrictions.
9 Valves incorrectly adjusted (valves are not sealing)
Check and adjust the valves.
10 Engine Compression is low
Perform the compression check to identify the malfunction.
11 Injector needle valve sticking Check the injectors and replace any malfunctioning injectors.
12 Fuel injection pump malfunction/delivery valves malfunctioning
Remove the fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.

Engine runs rough or misfires
1 Condition only occurs at idle
See - Engine runs rough at idle.
2 Engine is cold
Allow the engine to warm up to operating temperature. If engine will not reach operating temperature see manual.
3 Fuel injection lines are leaking
Inspect/correct the leaks in the high pressure lines, fittings, or delivery valve gaskets.
4 Fuel supply inadequate
Check the flow through the filter to locate the source of the restriction.
5 Fuel Supply restricted
Clean the pre-filters and screens and check the fuel line for restrictions.
6 Air in the fuel system
Bleed the fuel system and check for suction leaks.
7 Fuel contaminated
Verify by operating the engine with clean fuel from a temporary tank.
8 Malfunctioning fuel return overflow valve Check/replace the return overflow valve.
9 Fuel transfer pump malfunctioning Check/replace the fuel transfer pump.
10 Valves incorrectly adjusted (valves are not sealing)
Check and adjust the valves.
11 Injection pump timing
Check and adjust the timing of the injection pump to the engine manufacturer's specifications.
12 Engine compression is low
Perform the compression check to identify the malfunction.
13 Injectors worn or malfunctioning
Check the injectors and replace any malfunctioning injectors.
14 Camshaft, tappets, or push rods are damaged
Inspect the camshaft and tappets.
15 Fuel injection pump malfunctioning/delivery valves are malfunctioning
Remove the fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.
16 Camshaft is out of time
Check/correct the gear train timing alignment.

Engine speed surges at low or high idle
1 Fuel level low
Check/fill the tank.
2 The condition occurs at idle, the idle speed is set too low for accessories Adjust the idle.
3 Throttle linkage mis-adjusted or damaged Adjust or repair the linkage.
4 High Pressure fuel leak
Inspect the high pressure lines, fittings, or delivery valve seals for leaks and repair if necessary.
5 Air in the fuel system
Bleed the fuel system and check for suction leaks and check for malfunctioning supply pump.
6 Injectors worn or malfunctioning
Check the injectors and replace any malfunctioning injectors.
7 Fuel injection pump malfunctioning/delivery valves malfunctioning
Remove the fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.

Engine overheating
1 Coolant level low
Add coolant. * Check for leaks. i.e. Water pump, hoses, radiator, engine block.
2 Restricted radiator
Clean radiator. * Check radiator tubes for plugging, rod out or repair and replace if necessary.
3 Loose belts
Tighten belts. * Check for worn pulleys or belts.
4 Overloading engine Reduce load or use lower gear.
5 Defective engine thermostat
Replace thermostat.
6 Restricted intake
Check air filters and replace as needed.
7 Defective or incorrect water pump
Replace.
8 Head gasket leaking into combustion chamber or cracked head
Remove head and pressure test. Repair or replace as necessary.
9 Fuel injection pump or engine timing incorrect.
Reset timing.

Excessive black smoke
1 Engine is being lugged down
Use a lower gear. Check for added loading from malfunctioning accessories or driven units, brakes dragging and other changes in vehicle loading.
2 Intake air inadequate or overheated
Inspect/replace the air cleaner element and look for the other restrictions. If the vehicle is equipped with a valve to switch the intake source from under the hood to outside, position the valve for the season. * Coolant passages plugged in the aftercooler. * Check the charge air cooler for internal restriction. Replace the restricted cooler. * Check and clean the debris from the front of the charge air cooler.
3 Exhaust restriction Check for any exhaust restriction and repair.
4 Air leak between the turbocharger and the intake manifold
Check/correct leaks in the air crossover tube, hoses, or through holes in the manifold cover.
5 Charge air cooler malfunctioning
Check for plugged charger air cooler, internal charge air restriction, or leaking charge air cooler.
6 Exhaust leak at the manifold or turbocharger Check and correct any leaks in the exhaust manifold or turbocharger gaskets. Look for a cracked exhaust manifold.
7 Turbocharger wastegate malfunctioning
Repair or replace the wastegate.
8 Turbocharger worn or malfunctioning
Check for the specified boost pressure. Refer to the turbocharger boost pressure specification. Inspect and replace as necessary.
9 Fuel injection pump timing is incorrect Check and time the fuel injection pump.
10 Extra injector sealing washer installed under injector. Only applicable on new overhauls
Remove the extra sealing washer.
11 Seven mm injector installed with a nine mm sealing washer on CDC engines Remove the injector and install the proper sealing washer.
12 Injectors worn or malfunctioning -or- incorrectly installed
Check the injectors and replace any malfunctioning injectors.
13 Fuel injection pump malfunctioning
Remove the fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.
14 Camshaft is out of time
Check/correct the gear train timing alignment.

Excessive white smoke
1 Starting procedure is incorrect Verify proper starting procedures. Refer to the starting procedure in the operations and maintenance manual.
2 Troubleshoot the cold start device if applicable
Refer to manual.
3 Coolant temperature is too low Refer to manual.
4 Intake air temperature is too low Refer to manual.
5 Fuel quality poor
Verify by operating the engine from a temporary tank with good quality fuel. Clean and flush the fuel supply tanks. Use a diesel fuel with a cetane value of 42-50.
6 Fuel injection pump timing is incorrect
Check and adjust the injection pump timing to the engine manufacturers specification.
7 Extra injector sealing washer installed under injector. This is only applicable to new overhauls
Remove the extra injector sealing washer.
8 Injectors worn or malfunctioning or improperly installed (backwards)
Check the injectors and replace any malfunctioning injectors.
9 Coolant leaking into combustion chamber
Refer to manual.
10 Fuel injection pump malfunctioning/delivery valves
Remove the fuel injection pump and repair or replace as necessary.
11 Camshaft is out of time
Check/correct the gear train timing alignment.

Blue smoke
1 Piston rings NOT sealing or valve guides worn Perform a compression check and correct as required.
2 Turbocharger seal leaking on intake side
Repair or replace turbocharger.

Engine oil coming out of exhaust
1 Turbo seal leaking on Exhaust side Repair or replace turbocharger.
2 Broken piston rings or valve guides
Overhaul engine.
3 Plugged crankcase ventilation
Repair as necessary.

Fuel in crankcase
1 Engine mounted fuel lift pump seal or diaphragm ruptured - rapid dilution
Replace/repair engine mounted lift pump.
2 Injection nozzle(s) stuck open - slow dilution
Test/replace injection nozzle(s) * Treat fuel with fuel conditioners such as Stanadyne lubricity formula.
3 Injection pump seal(s) ruptured - rapid dilution
Remove injection pump and repair/replace.
4 Engine valve train components malfunction i.e. broken rocker arm or bent push rod ect
Repair the necessary engine components.

Coolant or steam in crankcase
1 Cylinder sleeves have cavitational erosion or o-rings leaking around sleeves
Overhaul engine. * Make sure block is not corroded where o-rings seal.
2 Head gasket leaking or cracked head or block
Repair or replace as necessary.

Engine oil in coolant
1 Oil cooler leaking
Replace oil cooler. * If radiator has a built in oil cooler make sure it is checked.
2 Head gasket leaking or cracked head around engine oil pressure port Repair or replace as necessary.

*Radiators: Keeping things cool
Keep the radiator clean. You can use compressed air or a pressure washer, but use caution not to damage the fins while doing this. Replace the coolant. Don't just add more, but put in new. Use the correct radiator cap. Make sure the rotary air screen or bug screens are clean. Also, check the hoses for age and replace if necessary. Replace a leaking radiator. Products that are added to coolant to plug a leak can actually prohibit cooling by blocking water flow! When it is time to replace the radiator remember to order the radiator that is needed for your specific application (make & model). The correct radiator is not just determined by the size of the core but by cooling capacities. Determine which radiator fits your need. Also, remember to use the correct hardware when mounting radiators. Using a bolt or screw that is too long for the side brackets can damage the core and cause a leak. We offer a wide variety of NEW radiators. All of our radiators meet or exceed the cooling capacities of OEM.

*Water pump: Replacement considerations
The summer heat will challenge a worn out water pump. If the pump leaks after the engine is shut off or if the engine is running hotter than normal, it might be time to replace it. Here are some important points or questions to consider before ordering a replacement
Know the make & model of the tractor or combine. If you know the engine size-better yet. Get the casting number off of the old pump. How many belt grooves are on the pulley? Does the tractor have air conditioning? It is always a good idea to closely inspect the replacement pump before installation to make sure that it is identical to the original.
These are two tips that could save you a lot of time & frustration
If the water pump is leaking, check the radiator cap. A bad radiator cap will allow the build up of pressure in the cooling system, forcing even a good water pump to leak. With the engine off (Hey, you never assume!), grab the fan and give it a good shake. There should be no give at all.

*Engine Kits: Proper ordering method
Information needed when ordering an engine kit
Know your bearing sizes- Most kits come with rod and/or main bearings.
Ford engines-Know the year of the engine and the bore size along with the stroke.
Massey Ferguson/Perkins engines- Know the build number/engine serial number and whether or not it is a direct or indirect injection.
John Deere engines-Know the engine serial number, block casting number, rod casting numbers, piston pin size and where the liner o-rings are located. Be aware of the Power Tech engine. They need a separate kit from the standard series.
International Harvester engines-Know the serial number, bore, whether or not it is a turbo or non-turbo, the piston type (flat, cupped, or stepped head).

*Engine Kits: Proper kit installation
Before disassembly, power wash the engine. You must have a clean environment when it comes time to reassemble. When disassembling the engine, carefully inspect all components for wear and damage Remove all main and cam bearings. Remove the plugs from oil galleys and thoroughly power wash the cylinder block and cylinder head. Inspect camshaft and lifters- replace or regrind if not to specifications. Inspect crankshaft-replace or regrind if it does not meet specifications. Inspect rocker arms and rocker shaft for wear. Check block condition; line bore, counter bore, top deck, cylinder wear, magnaflux. Check connecting rods for size and install new bolts. New pin bushings must be fitted to new piston pins. Check flywheel wear. Resurface or replace as necessary.
Prior to, or during final assembly, the following must be checked. Refer to your service manual for all specifications, torques and clearance All components must be clean! Use a quality assembly lube. Check engine oil pump and relief valve. Check that the lube hole in the cam bearings line up with the oil galley in block. Main bearings must be properly installed. Check crankshaft end clearance and bearing journal clearance. Check for proper sleeve protrusion to ensure sealing of head gasket. When installing wet sleeves make sure you use a special liner seal lubricating soap on o-rings such as John Deere AR54749. Make sure o-rings are not twisted! Check ring end gap. Check piston to cylinder clearance. Cylinder head is to spec. (resurface, replace seats, guides, valve springs, valves, keepers). Inspect harmonic balancer. Replace if rubber material is protruding past the outer edge of balancer. Clean radiator, replace if necessary. Prior to initial start up, turn engine over with starter to build oil pressure. Diesel Engines Have injection pump tested for proper operation and fuel settings. Install new or remanufactured injector assemblies. Check turbo charger for wear and seal leakage. Replace if necessary.
Gasoline Engines
Rebuild carburetor assembly. Tune up ignition system with new points, cap, rotor, wires and spark plugs.

*Fuel economy: Improve fuel consumption
One of the hot topics of today is the rising cost of gasoline for our automobiles. When was the last time you stopped and considered just how much fuel your ag equipment is using. Does it burn your eyes or smoke a little while running? Many of us do not use our ag equipment every day so we often overlook the fuel we waste. Many times that waste can be prevented with some routine maintenance paired with some simple checks and adjustments. The intake system needs to be checked routinely. Air filters, even though they may look clean, may have fine dust imbedded in them and need to be replaced according to the conditions upon which the equipment is being used. If you remove the intake hose at the intake manifold and wipe your finger along the inside, there should be no sign of dust. This simple check could save you thousands of dollars down the road. If you have a turbocharged model, make the hose loose at the turbo and try to move the end of the impeller. If it has slack or does not spin freely, it should be replaced. The exhaust system also plays a part, especially in turbocharged models. Check for rust filled mufflers and weather caps, or rusted-out elbows that allow water to enter the engine when it rains. If your equipment has been around for a few years, keep in mind that a diesel engine has solid lifters in the valve train and needs to be adjusted manually according to manufacturer's specifications. To check injectors, while the engine is running, loosen the injector line at each injector one at a time. Just like pulling a spark plug wire off of an automotive engine, there should be a distinct miss in the engine. If not, your injector is probably in need of cleaning or replacing. An injector and fuel cleaning additive should be added with every other tank of fuel to keep it clean and running smoothly.

These simple checks will help keep your engine running at its peak performance and fuel efficiency, thereby saving you money and down time.
As you run through these checks, if you find it's time to replace a few parts visit our online store. Our online store is open 24/7 parts ordering, or call for help on finding the parts you need. *From A&I Tech Tips

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